It is thinning and sharpening of the cornea. In keratoconus patients, the amount of curvature of the cornea gradually increases as a congenital feature, so the cornea hangs forward. Astigmatism occurs as a result of an increase in the curvature of the cornea. Keratoconus disease has different stages as mild (stage 1), moderate (stage 2), advanced (stage 3) and severe (very advanced). The first sign of keratoconus is blurred vision. In addition, increased sensitivity to light, glare, decreased night vision, headache, reading difficulties, double vision, burning, stinging and redness are common symptoms of the disease. The quality of life of the patients in this group is reduced, and the quality of vision can be severely affected.
Keratoconus is a disease that usually involves both eyes, but one of the eyes may be more affected than the other.
The female / male ratio is equal. Keratoconus is frequently seen in youth, and rarely occurs in twenties or later.
In each eye examination, astigmatism, which changes and increases, should suggest keratoconus disease. If the disease is left untreated, the cornea becomes excessively thin (severe keratoconus), and the patient's vision is reduced due to edema and turbidity.
Contact lenses, corneal cross-linking, corneal rings, corneal transplantation is treatment methods used in the treatment of keratoconus.
Gas-permeable contact lenses are more suitable for keratoconus patients, as soft contact lenses and goggles cannot completely correct the irregular structure of the eye surface. However, this type of contact lens is more difficult to use, patients may not always feel very comfortable. Both the patient and the doctor require patience and care.
Ultraviolet A and riboflavin in the form of drops are used to increase the internal bonds of the corneal layer and make the cornea more resistant. The aim of this treatment is to stop the progressing keratoconus disease. Corneal rings are one of the most recently developed treatment modalities for keratoconus patients. 2 Small, semicircular parts that are viewed as transparent are placed inside the cornea. Corneal rings do not stop the progression of keratoconus and temporarily correct the visual impairment caused by keratoconus disease.
20% of keratoconus patients choose corneal transplantation. Corneal transplantation is the replacement of the 7-9 mm section of the cornea at the centre. Corneal transplant surgery may be an inevitable end for late-onset keratoconus patients. Although the success rate in this operation is reported as 95 %, it rarely includes serious complications.