Xerophthalmia And Treatment

Xerophthalmia and Eye dryness

Normally, the eye is washed continuously with tears. The tear keeps the eye moist and comfortable. Sometimes tears may be produced in sufficient quantities. Sometimes the tear quality deteriorates and the eye is not wet enough. This case is known as "xerophthalmia". This disorder is called eye dryness among the public. There are two methods for the production of tears in our eyes. The first is the slow and steady tear release that causes the eye to get wet, the second is crying, the foreign body escape, the eyelash sinking, the contact with cold air and wind, and the irritation of the nose, the flu, the flu or the inflammation of the eyes, the reflex of a large amount of secretion. It is interesting that dryness in the eye can lead to reflexive life. The use of contact lenses may increase the intensity of tears.

What are the Symptoms of Xerophthalmia?

  • Sensation of burning and stinging sensation
  • Mucus yarns in and around the eye (a sticky discharge)
  • Redness,
  • Excessive lachrymation, feeling of tired
  • Uncomfortable feeling when using contact lenses.

What Does a Tear Film Layer Mean?

When we blink, the tear spreads to the surface of the eye and forms a layer. It's called a tear film. In addition to water, this layer contains oil, mucus, electrolytes, vitamins, sugar and amino acids. The tear film layer nourishes the front layers of the eye, ensures the exchange of oxygen and ensures that the eye surface is smooth and transparent. If this layer is not necessary, a clear and smooth vision is not possible. In addition, foreign bodies entering eyes allows to wash away allergic and microbial substances. It contains immunoglobulins and immunomodulators against microbial agents.

What are the Causes of Xerophthalmia?

Normally, as we get older, the amount of tears is reduced. The prevalence of xerophthalmia in menopausal and older women increases. However, it is possible for men and women to be seen at any age. Xerophthalmia due to vitamin A deficiency is very rare and is observed especially in underdeveloped countries.

Xerophthalmia may also be associated with other problems. For example, Sjögren syndrome may be suspected if mouth dryness and joint pain are present. Some rheumatic diseases may lead to a decrease in tear secretion. Some medications may also cause xerophthalmia by reducing tear release.

These Medicines are;

  • diuretics;
  • beta-blockers;
  • antihistamines;

If these treatments are necessary, artificial tear drops may be added to the patient.

People with xerophthalmia are more susceptible to the toxic side effects of eye drops. Preservatives in some artificial tear drops can irritate the eye. Drops without preservatives may be used in this case.

How is Xerophthalmia Diagnosed?

The dry eye can be easily diagnosed by any ophthalmologist. Tests for measuring tear production are performed for a definitive diagnosis.

Schirmer Test:  A filter paper placed on the inside of the lower eyelid may be used to assess whether tears are sufficient. It should be at least 10 mm above the eye to prevent dryness.

Tear Break Up Time: Coloring agent is dripped into the lower eyelid and the eye is opened a few times after opening and closing; it is asked to not to close the eye after opening and closing several times; Dry spot formation on the eye surface before 10 seconds is important for diagnosis.


1- Addition of Tear

First of all, the missing tears must be put back into place. Artificial tears are very similar to the tears of man. They dilute the eye and relieve the eye by keeping it moist. There are many varieties of artificial tears.

  • Tear droplets that do not contain preservatives should be offered to those who are sensitive to preservatives in artificial tears or who use contact lenses. Artificial tear drops can be used once or twice a day, even a few times per hour. You should also follow your doctor's advice.

2- Preservation of Current Tear (Temporary-Permanent Punctum Plugs)

Another approach that keeps the eyes moist is to protect one's own tears.

Tear discharges through the nose through a duct system. (Therefore, nasal discharge occurs when we cry). This may temporarily or permanently block ducts. With this closure process, the patient will be able to protect their tears and extend the duration of the eye of the artificial tears.

3- Other Methods

Tear also has the ability to evaporate like other liquids. It may be helpful to keep the media moist to prevent evaporation. For this purpose, it is possible to keep the room moist by putting water in a container on the heater or stove which we use to heat the interior in winter.

A person with dry eye should protect himself from hot rooms, hair dryers or windy conditions. We may also count smoking among them.

Drugs that increase tear production by reducing inflammation in the tear gland have been used recently and provide highly effective results.

In rare diseases such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or pemphigoid, drops containing vitamin A may be useful for treating dry eyes.

The treatment of xerophthalmia and eye dryness is carried out in every way with contracted health care providers.You can make your online appointment right now by  clicking here